Hō͘ Tek-kok chi̍t-lia̍p Sim ê Cha-po͘-lâng

Khé-bông-ūn-tōng ê kiáⁿ-jî, lô-mán-chú-gī ê khai-ki-chó͘, Johann Gottfried von Herder (1744-1803), tī Prussia ê tang-pêng chhut-sì, 40 tang hiàn-sin kàu-io̍k-kài, mā sī hō͘ hiong-chhin thiàⁿ-thàng ê Sin-kàu bo̍k-su, gôan-té sī beh chò i-seng--ê, m̄-koh khòaⁿ-tio̍h hoeh to̍h sûi-sî hun-khì, chiah kái tha̍k sîn-ha̍k. Chit-ê cha-po͘-lâng, ēng i ê su-sióng kā Tek-kok sì-sòaⁿ ê bîn-cho̍k-ì-sek kho͘-óa chò-tui, chiâⁿ-chò bī-lâi kiàn-kok ê tē-ki, kái-ōaⁿ bîn-cho̍k ê miā-tô͘. Taⁿ kā chit-ê kò͘-sū, kán-lio̍k siāu-kài tī ē-té.

20 hòe chhut siā-hōe, Herder bat tī chit-má Latvia ê siú-to͘ Riga tòa kòe 5 tang. Riga sī chi̍t-ê siong-gia̍p o̍ah-tāng chin ka-ia̍h ê tōa-siâⁿ, it-ti̍t hō͘ gōa-lâi chèng-kôan thóng-hat, Tek-kok liáu ōaⁿ Sūi-tián, Sūi-tián lâi ōaⁿ Lō͘-se-a. Chóng-sī, hia-ê lâng pēng bô khòa-ì siáⁿ-lâng lâi chò in ê chú-lâng, piàⁿ-keng-chè tùi in lâi kóng khah iàu-kín, in toa-hun lóng kóng Tek-gí, in ê bó-gí sī bô tha̍k-chheh m̄-bat-jī ê chháu-tē-sông teh kóng--ê. Herder tī hia ê kàu-hōe chò bo̍k-su, mā tī ha̍k-hāu kà-chheh. I kū-té to̍h hèng so͘-chi̍p si-koa, tiàm Riga tùi in ê choh-chhân-lâng teh chhiùⁿ ê koa-iâu kap thiàu ê bú-tō sī put-chí-á him-sióng, i siūⁿ kóng, in ū chiah-nī súi ê mi̍h, in-ūi ī-cho̍k ê pak-siah, tì-sú in bô ki-hōe ùi chia hoat-tián koh khah iù-lō͘ ê giân-gí kap bûn-ha̍k, sim-lāi chiâⁿ m̄-kam. Herder chhim-chhim tì-kak-tio̍h, bîn-cho̍k ê bûn-hòa ài ū chhut-thâu, tio̍h chū-iû bô hō͘ gōa-lâng chi-phòe.

Hit-chūn Herder in chó͘-ke ê léng-thó͘ hun chò 1800 gōa tè, chèng-tī kap keng-chè lóng tòe in sai-pêng ê chhú-piⁿ bē-tio̍h, bián-kóng tī bûn-hòa hong-bīn, sī jōa-á-nī bih-chhiu. Hoat-kok ê Khé-bông tiat-ha̍k-ka Voltaire bat lâi Prussia kìⁿ in ê ông, Frederich Jī-sè, i hoat-hiān, chia-ê lâng kan-taⁿ kóng Hoat-gí, Tek-gí hō͘ “bé” lâi kóng khah tùi-lō͘ ê khóan. Ông ê hiaⁿ-tī sīm-chì khó͘-khǹg lâng ài o̍h Hoat-gí, “in-ūi lí tiāⁿ-tio̍h bô ài chò ‘Tek-kok cheng-siⁿ’”. Che to̍h ná-chhiūⁿ tī Riga, chāi-tē-lâng lóng kóng Tek-gí, bē-giàn kóng ka-kī ê ōe saⁿ-tâng.

Herder āu-lâi tńg-khì Prussia kà-chheh, siōng hō͘ i bē-sóng-khoài ê sī, hit-pêng ê ha̍k-hāu liáu siuⁿ chē sî-kan kà gín-á La-teng-bûn, chit-ê sí--khì ê gí-giân, jî-chhiáⁿ chē-chē ha̍k-hāu kà Hoat-gí pí kà Tek-gí khah téng-chin, beh tī chèng-hú-ki-koan ín-thâu-lō͘, Hoat-gí tio̍h ài o̍h hō͘ chiâu-chn̂g, ah nā Tek-gí, iû-gôan sī m̄-chiâⁿ-mi̍h.

Teh bûn-ha̍k ê léng-he̍k, siá bûn ê lâng lóng ēng Hoat-gí siá-chok, koh chia̍p-chia̍p thàn in hit-chióng ké-sian-ké-ta̍k, siuⁿ tùi-tiōng hêng-sek ê iūⁿ lâi siá, chi̍t-tiám-á to̍h bô thang piáu-hiān Tek-kok-lâng chū-liân ê siaⁿ-im, mā bô in chiâⁿ-si̍t ê khì-phek. Herder jīn-ûi Eng-kok ê bûn-ha̍k to̍h sī in-ūi ū kó͘-chá lia̍p-chek ê koa-iâu, sian-kò͘, kap bîn-kan kò͘-sū chò tē-kut lâi seng-tióng, chiah thang heng--khí-lâi, hoat-chhái kàu-ke̍k-kak. Ah nā lán Tek-kok...

“khòaⁿ pa̍t-ê bîn-cho̍k. In kám ū sì-kè lōng-liu-lian

Tì-sú thong-sè-kài bô chi̍t-ê só͘-chāi, in ē tiàm hia chò chhiⁿ-hūn-lâng

Chhiūⁿ teh ka-kī ê kò͘-hiong án-ne?

In khòaⁿ ka-kī chin sáng-sè, khòaⁿ pa̍t-lâng soah bū-bū.

Ah nā Tek-kok-lâng, to̍k-to̍k lí, ùi gōa-kok tńg--lâi,

Lí ē ēng Hoat-gí kā lín bú-á sio-chioh-mn̄g?

Ai-iah, tī lín chhù ê mn̂g-kha-tau kā phùi-sak

Phùi-sak Sian-hô òe-sè ê nōa-thô͘.

Kóng Tek-gí. Hàiⁿ, lín chia-ê Tek-kok-lâng.”

Che sī Herder siá ê si, lán Tâi-ôan-lâng kám bô kāng-khóan ê thiàⁿ?Tha̍k liáu, ba̍k-sái kám bē liàn--lo̍h-lâi?

Kap Eng-kok saⁿ-pí, Herder jīn-ûi, Tek-kok ē bô bûn-ha̍k ê in-toaⁿ sī in kap bûn-hòa ê té-tì ū tn̄g-chām, ài têng-sin kiàn-li̍p tùi ka-kī pún-té só͘-ū ê liân-kiat, án-chóaⁿ chò? Choh-chhân-lâng ēng bô siū gōa-kok-ōe kan-gāi ê bó-gí chhòng-chok ê koa-iâu, chiah sī bîn-cho̍k chiàⁿ-káng ū o̍ah-khùi ê bûn-ha̍k thôan-thóng, ēng chē chò tē-ki khí tōa-chhù, chiah thang sán-seng sio̍k-tī Tek-kok ê bûn-ha̍k, i jīn-ûi tio̍h ùi chia khai-sí, hō͘ pún-thó͘ bûn-hòa koh o̍ah--khí-lâi.

Tī kàu-io̍k si̍t-bū, i tī Weimar ê chit-ūi ū khah tōa ê kôan-hān, chiū mî-nōa chhui-sak Tek-gí iu-sian, Tek-gí chò kàu-ha̍k ê gí-giân ê chèng-chhek, beh kàu-io̍k Tek-kok ê gín-á chò Tek-kok ê kong-bîn, m̄-sī chò gōa-kok-lâng;liân i káng-tō ê kàu-tn̂g mā bô pàng-i-soah, kian-chhî tio̍h ēng Tek-gí káng-tō.

Herder ê sî-tāi, Tek-gí hō͘-lâng lia̍h-chò kē-lō͘, bô hó-sè káng-ha̍k-būn, tī kiong-têng mā bē-kìⁿ-chèng ê ōe-gí, m̄-koh i beh sí chìn-chêng, Tek-gí tī ha̍k-hāu chha-put-to ôan-chôan chhú-tāi Hoat-gí kap La-teng-bûn ê tē-ūi;i ê bûn-ha̍k phoe-phêng, mā khé-hoat Tek-kok chok-ka ēng ka-kī ê bó-gí chhòng-chok, bô koh hèng mô͘-hóng gōa-kok ê hong-keh, Tek-gí ko-seng chò bûn-ha̍k ê gí-giân, jî-chhiáⁿ sī piáu-ta̍t kám-chêng koh hóan-èng bîn-cho̍k cheng-sîn ê chài-kū.

I siōng tōa ê kòng-hiàn sī kiàn-li̍p chi̍t-thó gí-giân ê tiat-ha̍k, iā-chiū-sī, kan-taⁿ pún-thó͘-gí-giân chit-tiâu lō͘ ē thàng-khì chin-si̍t koh chāi-ún ê bîn-cho̍k-bûn-hòa, nā-sī ti̍t-ti̍t beh phēng gōa-gí, bē-su kā chhù khí teh soa-á-tē. Chit-thó gí-giân ê tiat-ha̍k, m̄-nā ín-chhōa i ê tông-pau ùi bó-gí kàu bîn-cho̍k-ì-sek, ùi bîn-cho̍k-ì-sek kàu to̍k-li̍p chiâⁿ kok, mā hō͘ chē-chē bô kok-ka ê bîn-cho̍k, Slavs chèng-bîn-cho̍k, Hiong-gê-lī, Pho-lân, Hun-lân…, thàn-iūⁿ lâi chò, khai-sí chun-chhûn in ê bîn-cho̍k gí-giân kap pe̍h-ōe-jī siá ê chok-phín, keng-pûi bîn-cho̍k jīn-tông, gêng-chū kiàn-kok ê chú-thé, khí-chō ka-kī ê kok-ka.

Múi chi̍t-ê bîn-cho̍k, lóng thang to̍k-li̍p koh chū-iû hoat-tián ka-kī to̍k-te̍k ê gí-giân, gē-su̍t, bûn-ha̍k, chong-kàu, seng-o̍ah-hong-sek, m̄-nā ūi-tio̍h lāi-pō͘ ê thôan-kiat, mā tùi sè-kài bûn-bêng put-chí ū-pun-tiuⁿ, che to̍h sī Herder ê lí-liām. I m̄-nā hō͘ Tek-kok chi̍t-lia̍p sim, mā kó͘-bú kî-tha ê bîn-cho̍k pho͘-siat ka-kī ê tō-lō͘, i ê su-sióng, kái-piān chit-ê sè-kài.

Lán Tâi-ôan ê sim iáu koh tī tó-ūi kiâⁿ-m̄-chai-lō͘?

Tang-sî chiah-ē tī chit-phìⁿ chhân-thô͘--ni̍h, koh o̍ah-thiàu--khí-lâi?

Chham-khó Chheh-bo̍k:

Andress, J. (2019). Johann Gottfried Herder as an Educator. Wentworth Press. (Original work published 1916)

Ergang, R. (1966). Herder and the foundations of German nationalism. New York: Octagon. (Original work published 1931)

Fishman, J. (1975). Language and nationalism. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Publishers. (Original work published 1973)

Hayes, C. (1927). Contributions of Herder to the Doctrine of Nationalism. The American Historical Review, 32(4), 721.

Piller, I. (2016). Herder: an explainer for linguists. Language on the move.

Steinby, L (2009). The Rehabilitation of Myth: Enlightenment and Romanticism in Johann Gottfried Herder’s Vom Geist der Ebräischen Poesie. 1700-tal: Nordic Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies, 6.

Woods, E. T. (2015). Cultural nationalism: A review and annotated bibliography. Studies on National Movements (SNM), 2.

Weissman, L. (1991). Herder, Folklore, and Modern Humanism. Folklore Forum 24(1), 51-64.

Wilson, W. (1973). Herder, Folklore and Romantic Nationalism. The Journal Of Popular Culture, 6(4), 819-835.

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