Iā-tio̍h Thâu-khak Iā-tio̍h Sim(Tē-it pō͘-hūn)

Khí-chō Sin Kok-ka, sui-jiân sī chin ngē-táu ê khang-khòe, m̄-koh hó-ka-chài lán m̄-bián têng-koh hoat-bêng lián-á. M̄-koán sī lián-á, tiān-hóe-chu-á, bûn-jī hē-thóng ia̍h-sī kok-ka, lóng sī jîn-lūi siā-hōe ê "chō-bu̍t", kap seng-bu̍t-thé kāng-khoán, lóng sī ián-hòa--chhut-lâi ê, chun-thàn ki-su̍t-bu̍t chhòng-sin ê kui-lu̍t, lán nā-sī chiáng-ak pit-iàu ê tí-sek, chiū thang chō-chhut kāng-khoán ê mi̍h.

Jîn-chō-bu̍t hun-chò khòaⁿ-ē-tio̍h kap khòaⁿ-bē-tio̍h nn̄g pō͘-hūn;khòaⁿ-ē-tio̍h ê pō͘-hūn sī chè-chō i tio̍h ēng ê bu̍t-chit châi-liāu, khòaⁿ-bē-tio̍h--ê sī chit-ê mi̍h hoat-tōng ê goân-lí kap cho͘-sêng ê ki-su̍t. Lú ho̍k-cha̍p ki-khá ê chō-bu̍t, khòaⁿ-bē-tio̍h ê pō͘-hūn to̍h lú iàu-kín, in-ūi oh-tit to̍k-to̍k thàn i ê iūⁿ lâi chò, koh tio̍h thàn i ê "lí".

Kám bat bé kòe chi̍t-siang ê, súi koh sio̍k, chhēng bô kúi-kang, ê-á chiū li̍h-sòaⁿ-chē?Ia̍h-sī hō͘ kha phòa-phôe lâu-hoeh?Lán kám m̄-chai ū bē-chió kok-ka, ū châi-tiāu to̍k-li̍p chiâⁿ kok, mā chiàu poaⁿ Se-hng lâi ê chū-iû bîn-chú hit-thò lâi cho͘ in ê chèng-hú, si̍t-chè ūn-chok--khí-lâi put-tat-put-chhit?Che to̍h sī kan-taⁿ o̍h lâng ê gōa-māu, soah bô chiâu-ûn thàn lâng ê goân-lí, tì-sú bô hoat-tō͘ hoat-hui goân-té ê kong-lêng.

Chiàⁿ-káng ê Sin Kok-ka, sī kùi-som-som ê mi̍h, ū chîⁿ to bô thang bé, ài ēng miā lâi khí-chō, m̄-koh nā m̄-chai i ê goân-lí kap ki-su̍t, pe̍h-liáu sìⁿ-miā mā bô-tit-thang chiâⁿ. Góa tī chia, beh kā ta̍k-ke siāu-kài Sin Kok-ka hoat-tōng ê goân-lí, āu chi̍t phiⁿ* koh beh lâi hun-thiah i án-chóaⁿ cho͘-sêng ê ki-su̍t. Seng án-ne kan-tan kóng, Sin Kok-ka sī kā nn̄g-chióng la̍t kap-chò-hóe ê sán-phín, kan-tan sī kan-tan, chi̍t-tiám-á to bô khin-khó!

(*Chit phiⁿ kiám-chhái tio̍h hun 3 pái lâi khan, sòa--lo̍h-lâi chiah ū āu chi̍t phiⁿ.)

Sè-kài thâu chi̍t-ê Sin Kok-ka, 1776 nî soan-pō͘ to̍k-li̍p ê Bí-kok, sī chun-thàn John Locke khak-li̍p ê sin ê chèng-tī goân-chek lâi khí-chō--ê, m̄-koh hit-chūn Bí-kok ê bîn-chiòng bô iân tha̍k-tio̍h Locke ê bûn-chiuⁿ, in-ūi kan-taⁿ tì-sek-hūn-chú kap tha̍k-chheh-lâng ē bong-tio̍h i ê chheh. Siàn-tōng kiàn-kok siōng chhiúⁿ-chhī ê chi̍t-pún chheh, sī Thomas Paine siá ê "Common Sense", Paine ēng kóng-kó͘ ê chhiú-lō͘ kā Locke ê su-sióng, Sin Kok-ka ê goân-lí kóng hō͘ lâng lí-kái koh jīn-tông, chit-má ta̍k-ke saⁿ-kap lâi thiaⁿ "A-Paine Kóng-kó͘".

"Siat-sú ū chi̍t-tīn lâng, tòa tī tē-chiūⁿ chi̍t-ê kap pa̍t-ūi lóng bô thang sio-chih-chiap ê só͘-chāi, in lóng sī chū-iû ê lâng, hióng-siū thiⁿ-sù ê sìⁿ-miā kap châi-sán chia ê ‘chū-jiân koân-lī’, kóng sī án-ne kóng, m̄-koh sim-lâi iáu-sī ko͘-ta̍k siok-bo̍k, bô kàu-la̍t tī chit-ê khòng-iá ka-kī thó-thàn, ūi-tio̍h o̍ah-miā, pit-iàu ê chi̍t-pō͘ to̍h sī cho͘-sêng ‘siā-hōe’, sio-pn̄g-sio-chhiâⁿ, hō͘-siong ha̍p-chok.

"M̄-koh, nî-chhim-ji̍t-kú, ū lâng ē bē-kì-tit ka-kī ê pún-hūn, ū lâng ē chhim-hoān pa̍t-lâng ê ‘chū-jiân koân-lī’, chit-sî tio̍h koh ài ū chi̍t-ê ‘chèng-hú’ hū-chek ēng hoat-lu̍t lâi táⁿ-tiap hia-ê bô chiáu khí-kang ê lâng. Siā-hōe jîn-kháu ná chē, khai-khún ê thó͘-tē ná khoah, ta̍p-ta̍p-tih-tih ê tāi-chì chiū bô thang kò͘ hō͘ chiâu-chn̂g, in-ūi tiàu-chi̍p choân-thé lâi khui-hōe thó-lūn sī chiâⁿ piàⁿ, chū-án-ne in to̍h koh ài kéng kúi-ūi-á chò tāi-piáu thè in chú-lí, cho͘-sêng chèng-hú."

Hit-chūn iáu teh tiû-tû sī beh kap Eng Tè-kok hô-hó ia̍h-sī kap in chhé ê Pak Bí bîn-chióng, tha̍k liáu chiū hō͘ chheh lāi ê lūn-su̍t sêng-kong soeh-ho̍k, beh gia̍h-khí bú-khì kap Eng-kun chhia-piàⁿ, to̍k-li̍p kiàn-kok. Bo̍k-tē sī ū ta̍t-sêng, m̄-koh, sī-m̄-sī ū siáⁿ-mi̍h só͘-chāi koài-koài?Chit-ê kò͘-sū ū chē-chē bô ha̍p-lí ê só͘-chāi. Chhiáⁿ ta̍k-ke koh thiaⁿ chi̍t-pái.

"Siat-sú ū chi̍t-ê lâng, m̄-chai hoān-tio̍h siáⁿ-mi̍h thian-tiâu, thàu-chá chhíⁿ--lâi hoat-hiān ka-kī kap chi̍t-tīn bô se̍k-sāi ê lâng tàu-tīn hông an-tah tī chi̍t-ê soaⁿ-thiⁿ-gōa-bóe ê pha-hng-tē, ka-chài in lóng ē-hiáu kóng Eng-gí, mā tú-tú-á hó lóng sī Locke ê sìn-tô͘, chai-iáⁿ ka-kī ū chū-iû, sìⁿ-miā kap châi-sán chia-ê chū-jiân koân-lī, sui-jiân bô͘ châi-tiāu ka-kī thó-thàn, tang-sî ē iau--sí ia̍h m̄-chai, koh bián kóng ná-ū siáⁿ-mi̍h châi-sán thang pó-hō͘, ah nā chū-iû, sī kóng tī chia tán sí ê chū-iû sī--m̄?Chóng-sī in ūi-tio̍h o̍ah-miā, chiū kóng hó-sè beh chò-hóe khiā-khí saⁿ óa-pn̄g, chiâⁿ chi̍t-ê ‘siā-hōe’. Āu-lâi, in iū koh kóng hó-sè beh sêng-li̍p ‘chèng-hú’, bián-tit ū lâng kā in teh siā-hōe phah-piàⁿ î-chhî ê sìⁿ-miā, chū-iû kap lia̍p-chek ê châi-sán chhiúⁿ-to̍at khì..."

Chit-ê kò͘-sū, bē-su chhit-hòe phiàn peh-hòe... Lán chai ū chèng-hú lâi chú-lí tāi-chì ê to̍h sī kok-ka, Paine kóng ê "siā-hōe" sī iáu bô chèng-hú/kok-ka ê kó͘-chá jîn-lūi kûn-thé, chiàu án-ne tēng-gī lâi kóng, lán thang hoat-kiàn nn̄g ê būn-tê,

  1. Siā-hōe kám sī chi̍t-tīn bô tī-tāi ê lâng cho͘-sêng--ê?

  2. Kok-ka kám sī siā-hōe sêng-oân kóng hó-sè lâi sêng-li̍p--ê?

Kok-ka ián-hòa ê le̍k-sú, thang hō͘ lán tap-hok chit-nn̄g-ê būn-tê. 5,000 nî chêng, sè-kài tē-it ê kok-ka chhut-hiān tī tē-chiūⁿ chìn-chêng, ián-hòa seng-bu̍t-ha̍k-ka Jared Diamond tī "Guns, Germs, and Steel" kā hit-chūn ê siā-hōe chho͘-lio̍k hun saⁿ chióng kûn-thé cho͘-chit, ùi ka-cho̍k-thoân(band), hoan-siā(tribe) kàu hoan-thâu-kok(chiefdom).

Homo sapiens goân-té to̍h sī kui-tīn tòa chò-hóe ê tōng-bu̍t, kàu taⁿ 99 pha ê sòe-go̍at lóng sī kap ka-kī ê chhin-lâng, hoeh-chhin ia̍h-sī in-chhin, chò-hóe chiâⁿ chi̍t-ê sì-kè î-sòa, phah-la̍h bán-chia̍h ê tōa ka-têng, chiū sī ka-cho̍k-thoân. It-ti̍t kàu 13,000 nî chêng khì-hāu piàn-chhian, hó-ūn tòa tī sek-ha̍p lông-gia̍p ê tē-khu ê lâng chiah khai-sí choh-chhân, kā tōng-bu̍t chhī-koai, tòa tī kò͘-tēng ê só͘-chāi, hêng-sêng hoan-siā. Hoan-siā pí ka-cho̍k-thoân ê kui-bô͘ koh khah tōa, sī kúi-nā ê chong-cho̍k kap-chò-hóe ê tōa thoân-thé, kúi-pah ê sêng-oân, ta̍k-ke lóng sio-bat, ke-kiám sī chhin-chiâⁿ. Lâng kóng, "Chhin-chiâⁿ mài kè-kàu", che to̍h sī Paine kóng--ê, m̄-bián hoat-lu̍t, ta̍k-ke sio-pn̄g-sio-chhiâⁿ ê bí-hó siā-hōe. Lâng mā kóng "Keh-piah chhin-ke, lé-sò͘ goân chāi", hoan-siā ēng kiōng-tông ê gî-sek kap khèng-tián lâi gêng-chū in ê thoân-kiat kap jīn-tông.

Lī-iōng ka-thiok kap choh-bu̍t ka-kī seng-sán chia̍h-mi̍h pí phah-la̍h bán-chia̍h koh khah ū hāu-lu̍t, tēng-ki koh gâu seng-sán ê hoan-siā thang seⁿ-thòaⁿ chē-chē, jîn-kháu ê ka-thiam hō͘ in su-iàu khah chē thó͘-tē lâi choh-chhân chhī kui-ke-hóe-á; chū-án-ne, lông-gia̍p ná tōa hoat-tián ê só͘-chāi, in-ūi tē-lí in-sò͘ khah chē tī Au-A tāi-lio̍k, kûn-thé chi kan chhiúⁿ-to̍at chu-goân ê seng-chûn kēng-cheng chiū ná ke̍k-jia̍t, chū-jiân soán-tek(natural selection) ê ián-hòa ap-le̍k tì-sù siā-hōe kûn-thé ū ná khok-tōa, ná ho̍k-cha̍p, chèng-tī koân-le̍k ná ǹg tiong-sim chū-chi̍p ê pān-sè. Lâng-gia̍h pí lâng khah chē, sio-thâi kau-chiàn to̍h ū iâⁿ-bīn. Pí-lūn-kóng, phah-la̍h bán-chia̍h--ê, tú-tio̍h choh-chhân ê hoan-siā lâi kā in kóaⁿ-tio̍k, kan-taⁿ soan khah hn̄g chi̍t-tô͘. Kāng cho̍k-kûn ê hoan-siā, ia̍h chiū-sī hoeh-iân sio-óa, kāng bûn-hòa, pau-kòa gí-giân, gî-sek kap hong-sio̍k, tiāⁿ ha̍p-khì-lâi tí-te̍k gōa-pō͘ sè-le̍k, á bô to̍h sī khah kiông/hiông--ê kā kî-tha--ê "thóng-it". Chóng-sī khah tōa khah iâⁿ, siû-tiúⁿ-kok, chit-ê koh khah tōa bong, lâng kap lâng pí hoan-siā kap ka-cho̍k-thoân "koh khah pêng-téng" ê chèng-tī si̍t-thé,(Jared Diamond án-ne kā khau-sè) tī 7,500 nî chêng chhut-hiān--ah. Siû-tiúⁿ-kok ū kúi chheng lâng, kàu chit-ê chân-chhù ê kûn-thé, í-keng bô hoat-tō͘ jīn-bat ta̍k-ji̍t sio-tú ē-tio̍h ê lâng, eng "jîn-chêng-sè-kò͘" lâi pâi-kái chhiong-tu̍t hit-thò chit-chūn bô hāu--khì--ah, Diamond án-ne biâu-su̍t, "...le̍k-sú-siōng, lâng thâu chi̍t-pái tio̍h ài ha̍k-si̍p beh án-chóaⁿ put-sam-sî tú-tio̍h chhiⁿ-hūn-lâng koh mài khí-sat-sim beh kā lâng thâi."

Tī Au-A tāi-lio̍k, m̄-nā lông-gia̍p hoat-tián, tē-lí tiâu-kiāⁿ mā khah lī-piān ki-su̍t ê hoat-bêng kap thoân-pò, chhiong-chiok ê si̍t-bu̍t thang chhī choh-sit-lâng í-gōa ê choan-gia̍p jîn-sū, pau-koat bú chèng-tī--ê, in siā-hōe chiām-chiām-á to-goân ho̍k-cha̍p, cho͘-sêng chèng-hú, kiàn-li̍p kok-ka ê sî-ki chiū kàu-hun -ah. Kok-ka ū chi̍t-ê koân-le̍k tiong-sim, chiap-sòa siû-tiúⁿ-kok kā sêng-oân siu pó-hō͘-hūi ê thoân-thóng, in hō͘-chò "la̍p-sòe", chiah kā chu-goân ēng khah ū hāu-lu̍t ê hong-sek lâi pun hō͘ bô ti̍t-chiap seng-sán ê lâng, che sī keng-chè ê lī-ek;chèng-tī hong-bīn, i ê seng-chûn pì-koat sī tēng hoat-lu̍t koh chhiàⁿ kéng-chhat ap-chè lāi-pō͘ ê hun-loān chiah bē kui-ê sòaⁿ--khì, cho͘ kun-tūi tùi-hù gōa-lâng ê chhim-hoān, pó-hō͘ ka-kī-lâng, bián-tit hō͘-lâng chia̍h-khì.

Kok-ka/chèng-hú sī jîn-lūi siā-hōe ián-hòa--chhut-lâi ê ki-su̍t-bu̍t, ūi-tio̍h sek-èng seng-sán chia̍h-mi̍h tì-sù jîn-kháu cheng-ka bô kāng kûn-thé saⁿ-chiⁿ thó͘-tē kap chu-goân ê tàu-cheng, chia ê keng-chè kap chèng-tī khoân-kéng, tong-jiân m̄-sī lâng hoaⁿ-hí-kam-goān kóng hó-sè lâi siat-li̍p ê ki-kò͘. Bô kok-ka chìn-chêng ê siā-hōe kûn-thé lóng sī kāng cho̍k-kûn cho͘-sêng ê, kàu kok-ka to̍h bô it-tēng, in-ūi kok-ka sī chèng-tī keng-chè si̍t-thé ê "kiông-sè bu̍t-chèng", m̄-nā kap siû-tiúⁿ-kok kāng-khoán, ē châu-bia̍t hoan-siā, mā ē thun-chia̍h pa̍t-cho̍k ê siû-tiúⁿ-kok kap pí ka-kī khah jio̍k ê kok-ka, sim-chì chiâⁿ chi̍t-ê tōa tè-kok. M̄-koh chiū-sǹg sī to cho̍k-kûn ê tè-kok, mā ū chi̍t-ê siōng kiông-sè ê "he̍k-sim cho̍k-kûn(ethnic core)" teh hōaⁿ chit-ê tōa kok-ka.

Lán chai kok-ka/chèng-hú sêng-li̍p chân-jím ê chin-siòng, mā chai siā-hōe cho̍at-tùi m̄-sī bô tī-tāi ê chi̍t-tīn lâng cho͘-sêng ê, chit-sî, hoat-tōng kok-ka chi̍t-ê jîn-chō-bu̍t ê tē-it chióng la̍t mā phû-hiān ah. Che to̍h sī Paine ê Common Sense phah-ka-la̍uh ê koan-kiān, kok-ka ê hêng-sêng m̄-nā tio̍h ián-hòa ê ap-le̍k teh khu-sài, mā tio̍h ài ū i ê "siā-hōe ki-chhó͘", chiàm Homo sapiens 99 pha khah ke ê kì-tî, lâng tùi ka-têng ê thiàⁿ-sim, khok-tōa kàu tùi ka-kī cho̍k-kûn ê bûn-hòa pôaⁿ-kòe lí-tì ê ì-ài;"cho̍k-kûn chêng-kám", chiū-sī kok-ka tē-it ê hoat-tōng ê le̍k-liōng.

5,000 nî chêng chiah chhut-hiān ê, cho̍k-kûn chêng-kám chò khí-tiám lâi khí-chō ê kok-ka, hō͘ Thomas Hobbes pí-phēng chò Sèng-keng Io-buh Kì lāi ê hit-chiah go̍k-hî, "Leviathan", chit-ê jîn-chō-bu̍t chān lán ê chó͘-sian cháu-siám hō͘ put-sî hoat-seng ê "lâng kap lâng hō͘-siong tí-te̍k ê chiàn-sū(the war of all against all)" thún-ta̍h ê "chū-jiân chōng-thài", m̄-koh chit-chiah tōa go̍k-hî pí tāi chū-jiân koh khah hiong-ok, oh-tit hâng-ho̍k, tiāⁿ sì-kè chhōe i ê kāng-lūi sio-kā, iau-gō ê sî liân ka-kī ê sì-ki-pah-thé, to̍h sī i ê jîn-bîn, to thun ē lo̍h-khì. Chit-khoán ê kok-ka, bô sī khó͘, ū sī lò͘, bo̍k-koài Diamond ēng "chha̍t-á thóng-tī(kleptocracy)" chit-ê sû lâi hêng-iông kok-ka seⁿ-chiâⁿ ê le̍k-sú.
(Āu-piah koh ū)

3 Likes