What happens to [ʔ] at the end of the stem when the suffix -á is added?

From what I know, if the stem ends in -p [p], -t [t], -k [k], then after the -á affixaction, the last sound of the stem becomes voiced (in the case -p [p], -k [k] it becomes [b], [g]; in the case of -t [t] it becomes a flap [ɾ]) and then geminates. What happens when the stem ends in -h [ʔ] (the glottal stop)? Does it also get geminated when followed by -à affix? It's hard to imagine how would a long glottal stop [ʔʔ] be pronounced.

Or is [ʔ] deleted when the -á affixation happens? At least, according to the tone sandhi rules, the syllables having checked tones 4 and 8 which end in -h [ʔ] change their tone to the unchecked tones 1 and 7 respectively (and syllables having unchecked tones can't have a glottal stop at the end).

As a native speaker (but not a professional linguistic), from my own experience, sometimes [p]/[t]/[k]-á is still unvoiced, other times it does become voiced.

:bulb: Now this explains why in some cases, for example:

小等隻會sió-tán tsi̍t-ē("Wait a minute/second") can be realized as "sió-tán tsi̍-lē" during speaking as [-t] become voiced [-d], which in turn become [-l] (or [ɾ]).

I don't thinks so (not every [ʔ] would disappear). For example, when speaking ahá, there is still [ʔ].

Yes, effectively deleted.

Tó-á, toh-á.
Ké-á, keh-á.

Perhaps there is a subtle difference, but I do not realize it.


Maybe it's the influence of Mandarin? (Since Mandarin doesn't have voiced consonants...) I've seen a few papers about the -á suffix, and they all implied that the voicing is obligatory.

OK, it seems there's some disagreement here. Maybe it depends on the dialect?

Here's what I found in Hilary Chappell's "A sketch of Southern Min grammar" (it's about Taiwanese, not other SM varieties):

Fourth, for open syllables and for syllables with a glottal stop final, the resultant form simply preserves the underlying or overt suprasegmental glottal feature: V+a(Ɂ) -> V+aɁ


So according to this source, the glottal stop is preserved, not geminated, but a second glottal stop inserted after á. What do people here think about this?

I don't think it is due to the influence from Mandarin.

Maybe it is due to habit or dialect. For example, 罵 mē is sometimes realised as mēⁿ; vice versa, 麵 is mī but realised as mīⁿ yet some pronounced as mī.

Additionally, Mandarin does have voiced consonants such as [ʐ], [j], [w], [ɥ] and voiced nasals. What it does not feature are voiced plosives.

Checked tone of Taiwanese are voiced sound with unreleased stop. "-p, -t, -k" are wrongly written. "-b, -d/l, -g" are real sound. Taiwanese don't distinguish d/l.


替汝補隻ê 連結




岩田禮(1984, 1992)以生理語音學的方法,用光纖維鏡和肌電觀察入聲韻尾的緊喉運動情形,發現閩南語和廣東話的入聲韻尾確實存在著口腔及喉頭的雙重閉鎖及緊喉現象。

漢字大概於隋、唐時代傳入日本,當時的漢語具有入聲,因而日語保存入聲的痕跡至今,但日語音系中無閉音節,因而一漢字被分拆成兩音節,其破音音尾已開音節化獨立成另一個音節[通常為ka行、ta行、wa行([p] → [ɸ] → [w] → ∅)的音節]。

4 posts were merged into an existing topic: 無連劃个台羅文–Tâiwânbûn

These were pretty much going off topic, and also not in English anymore. Moved them to another thread.